Mountain raised grain duck is not greasy when roasted

Zibo Huoke Catering Management Co., Ltd

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北京烤鸭的前世今生

A few slices of duck with crisp skin and tender meat, accompanied by green onions, sauce, wrapped in a thin lotus leaf cake, and a bite will leave your lips and teeth fragrant; Every authentic Peking duck on the table comes from the outstanding craftsmanship of the roast duck master.

"There is no better food in Beijing than duck." Roast duck is the most famous dish in Beijing with a long history. Before the founding of New China, "roast duck" was called "roast duck" or "roast duck". Compared with its fame, few people knew the stories and unique skills of roast duck contained in hundreds of years.


The Centennial Origin of Roast Duck


According to historical records, the history of roast duck can be traced back to the Northern and Southern Dynasties. It has been recorded in the Food Treasure Record of the Northern and Southern Dynasties. By the Southern Song Dynasty, the roast duck had become a famous product in the "market food" of Lin'an (today's Hangzhou), and was loved by scholars and officials.

Hu Sihui, a native of the Yuan Dynasty, described in detail the cooking of ducks in his book "The Meal to Drink". At that time, the imperial court had roast duck, which was baked in a braising oven. Most of the ducks were small Nanjing Lake ducks. The roasted duck was called "Jinling Sliced Skin Duck". The roast duck method, which has a direct origin with Beijing roast duck, was introduced in the Ming Dynasty. In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor and established his capital in Nanjing. It is said that Zhu Yuanzhang's love for roast duck reached the level of "one roast duck for daily food". In order to please the emperor, the imperial chefs developed a variety of cooking methods, which laid the foundation for the formation of braised duck and baked duck in hanging oven in the future.

After Zhu Yuanzhang, the Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, made Nanjing the capital, sliced duck was included in the imperial diet. After Zhu Di, the Emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty, moved to Beijing, he brought the roast duck method from Nanjing to Beijing, and the duck billets also changed from the original Nanjing dried duck to Beijing stuffed duck.

With the change of dynasties, roast duck became a delicacy in the Ming and Qing dynasties. It is recorded in such books as The Emperor's Sui Shi Sheng and Du Men Za Ji of the Qing Dynasty that the imperial dining room prepared Nanlu duck (roast duck) for the emperor to enjoy in addition to sweet scented osmanthus moon cakes during the Mid Autumn Festival. Emperor Qianlong especially loved it.

In the Qing Dynasty, emperors and empresses loved to eat roast duck, and the people also followed suit. Roast duck is popular in Beijing.

Yan Chen, a scholar in Daoguang's reign and a scholar in the Imperial Academy, returned to his hometown in Zhejiang in his old age and often recalled Beijing Roast Duck: "Recalling Kyoto, filling the whole world with duck, making it fat and beautiful when it's boiled, and making it special when it's baked..." At this time, roast duck shops have spread all over the prosperous streets of the capital, famous people such as Cheap Square, Quanjude, Liuhefang, Jinhua Hall, etc.

The originator of Beijing Roast Duck is the Cheap Shop located in the Rice Market Hutong, Caishikou. This old shop was founded in the Yongle period of the Ming Dynasty, with a history of more than 600 years. It is said that Cheap Shop also moved from Nanjing, and the shop signboard was once titled "Jinling".

Cheap Place adopts the technique of "braising roast duck in oven". The so-called "braising stove" is a stove with a door, which uses sorghum straw as fuel to heat the stove. After the fire is extinguished, the duck is put in. The finished product baked with the "dark fire" is jujube red, the skin is bright and crisp, the meat is white and tender, fat but not greasy. Yang Jisheng, a member of the Ministry of War of Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty, ate at the Cheap Shop and left three big words, "Cheap Shop". This plaque has also been handed down to this day. In the Qing Dynasty, although the Cheap Shop changed its owners several times, its business was still booming, and the demand exceeded the supply every day.

At the peak of the business of Cheap Shop, another roast duck shop Quanjude quietly appeared in the alley of Qianmen Meat Market. Shopkeeper Quanjude Yang Shoushan (Quanren) was originally a peddler of chickens and ducks. After he had some savings, he saw that the business of Cheap Shop was booming, and he also wanted to open a roast duck shop. In 1864, he set up a fruit shop called "Dejuquan", and listened to the Feng Shui teacher's advice and changed its name to "Quanjude". After having a shop name, Yang Shoushan invited scholar Qian Zilong (No. Cloud Valley) to write the three characters "Quanjude" for him in order to make a plaque, which was made of gold characters on a black background and hung on the lintel of the shop. On July 9, 1864 (the sixth day of the sixth lunar month), Quanjude opened its business in a loud firecracker.

Yang Shoushan has found a new way to compete with the roast duck in the braising oven of Cheap Place by selling roast duck in the oven (the door of the oven is uneasy, and fruit trees such as jujube wood and pear wood are used as fuel). In order to make an exquisite roast duck, Yang Shoushan paid a lot of money to hire the master of the imperial dining room of the Qing Palace, "Sun Xiaobian". Quanjude hired Master Sun, which is equivalent to mastering all the skills of roasting duck in Qinggong hanging stove. Master Sun changed the original oven into a hanging oven with a large height and a deep hearth, which can roast more than ten ducks in one oven, and can also roast and add ducks in the same oven at the same time. The ducks baked by him are beautiful, plump and plump. They are red in color, crisp in skin and tender in meat. They are delicious and crisp. They are fat but not greasy, and thin but not firewood. From then on, the roast duck in the oven is not only a palace food, but also a folk delicacy. At the same time, Quanjude is highly praised by diners because of this "unique skill".

At the end of the Qing Dynasty, eating roast duck became the most fashionable thing, so that "relatives must give roast duck as a gift on their birthday". However, there was a problem. It was very indecent to hold the fried duck in your hand when you came to visit the family. Moreover, if the host didn't eat it at that time, after a period of time, the unique taste of Quanjude Roast Duck would be greatly reduced. What can we do about it? Quanjude has a way. In order to solve customers' worries, they specially designed a new gadget, "Duck Ticket". When celebrating the birthday, guests only need to take a big red paper cover with duck tickets to celebrate the birthday, which is light and dignified. The recipient can take a ticket to the roast duck shop at any time to eat the freshly roasted duck, which is not only convenient but also can taste the authentic Quanjude roast duck. Therefore, gift and duck tickets were very popular at that time.

Nowadays, braised roast duck represented by Cheifang and hanging roast duck represented by Quanjude have become two famous schools of Beijing roast duck, each with its own merits. And the reputation of Beijing Roast Duck has long been spread all over the world.

In 2006, "Cheap Square Roast Duck in Stewing Oven" and "Quanjude Roast Duck in Hanging Oven" were jointly included in the first batch of Beijing municipal intangible cultural heritage; In 2008, they were approved by the State Council to be included in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.


How to Eat Roast Duck


Due to the differences in equipment and roasting methods between the two factions, the unique taste of Beijing Roast Duck is created.

The roast duck in the braising oven is roasted by closing the oven door and relying on the heat on the inner wall of the oven. The fire is gentle but not strong, the air humidity is high, and the oil consumption is small. The duck breast is as pleasant as the steamed bread just steamed.

There is no oven door for hanging oven roast duck. The fruit wood is fully burned. The duck is heated evenly and has strong firepower. The subcutaneous fat is largely consumed. The skin of the roasted duck is crisp and the meat is tender.

Roast duck master is making roast duck in hanging oven


The roast duck is more exquisite. In terms of materials, Beijing Roast Duck uses lotus leaf cake and sauce of Beijing Liubiju; The most important thing is that the duck is a stuffed duck from Yuquan Mountain in Beijing. The so-called stuffed duck is a duck that has been artificially fed. It is the best of the ducks because of its wide body, white feathers, short mouth, large chest, white skin and tender meat. It can be said that it is specially prepared for roast ducks.

In the past, when eating roast duck, guests had to select the duck billets in advance.

The waiter took the dried duck

The Roast Duck Master uses the hook to put the roast duck into the oven


Once upon a time, when eating roast duck, the fastidious diners had to choose the duck billets themselves. First, prick the duck's belly with a silver stick to see if the duck is fat enough; After selection, write the name or draw a mark on the duck. To do this: First, see if the duck billets are dry. If they are not dry, do not eat ink, and words cannot be written; The second is to test the temperature of the roast duck master. If the previous mark is still there when the roast duck is out of the oven, it means that the duck is baked well, and the guests will reward it. This not only reflected the food mentality of the time, which was rich and plump, but also was a way for the shopkeeper to prove his reputation and show his skills. It seems that if you don't eat like this, you can't reflect the authentic flavor. Sliced duck: There is a saying in Beijing that "ducks from Cheap Place are eaten by pieces". It can be seen that the practice of slicing ducks began in the Ming Dynasty at the latest. After the roast duck comes out of the oven, the chef should slice the duck in 5 to 15 minutes. Strictly speaking, a roast duck needs 108 pieces, so the knife technique can be considered as the heat. Now, the chef of famous roast duck restaurant stresses that each duck can slice more than 90 pieces, and no less than 9 liang of meat. There are three ways to slice roast duck: the traditional way is to slice skin and meat indiscriminately, each piece should be accompanied by belt meat, including two kinds of "willow leaf slices" in strips and "fish scale slices" in sheets; The third method is the skin and meat separation method, which is only available in recent years. Lotus leaf cake: Round and thin cake like lotus leaf. In the past, lotus leaf pancake was freshly baked. It was made of medium gluten flour, three parts of which were hot, and seven parts of which were cold. You can see yellow spots on the pancake due to uneven heat. Use chopsticks to pick some sweet flour paste and smear it on the lotus leaf cake. Add the roast duck sliced into willow leaves and a little scallions. Roll up the lotus leaf cake and put it in your mouth. This is the earliest and most popular way to eat Beijing Roast Duck, with a history of more than 300 years. Hollow sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame sesame. This kind of eating method originated from the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. The hollow sesame sesame pancakes are generally prepared for female family members. Whenever there are female relatives, the shopkeeper will ask: "How many hollow pancakes do you want?" Because it is elegant to eat roast duck with pancakes, so you don't need to roll them. Sweet flour paste: The sweet flour paste must be made with Liubiju. After buying it, stir fry it in sesame oil, and then mix it with sugar. Each roast duck shop has some secrets in the processing and preparation of sweet flour paste. For example, the raw sauce of Cheap Place should be steamed for about two hours before being prepared. Scallion strips: In the past, Shandong scallions were used, but the production of scallions was small. Now, Shandong scallions are widely used. Cucumber bars: Cucumber bars were also prepared for female relatives in the past, because although the onions are delicious, they are very tasty. Cucumber bars play a refreshing role.

Waiter brings freshly baked duck


The waiter put the on-site sliced roast duck into the plate

Guests use chopsticks to dip duck in sauce

Some people say that Beijing Roast Duck has a taste, a second taste and a third taste culture, which is exactly right. This is why Beijing Roast Duck can enjoy a good reputation in the world.


Zhou Enlai's "Roast Duck Diplomacy"


If the honor of "diplomatic artifact" is crowned as a kind of food, it will undoubtedly be "Beijing Roast Duck". Especially in the history of establishing diplomatic relations between China and the United States, roast duck has made outstanding contributions.

On the evening of March 27, 1957, Premier Zhou Enlai hosted a banquet for the Czechoslovak government delegation led by Prime Minister Sirokee in Quanjude. When a foreign guest asked him what Quanjude meant, he thought a little and said: "Quanjude has a good culture and meaning, all of which are 'all without shortage'; gathering is' gathering without separation '; Germany is' benevolence and virtue are supreme'."

In July 1971, Kissinger, Special Envoy of President Nixon of the United States, came to Beijing to hold secret talks with Premier Zhou Enlai. On the morning of July 10, after visiting the Forbidden City, Kissinger came to Fujian Hall of the Great Hall of the People to attend the talks held here.

At the beginning of the talks, both sides were very cautious and nervous because they did not know the truth about each other. At noon, no agreement was reached in the talks. At this time, Zhou Enlai said, "Let's eat first. The roast duck will be cold."

There are 12 dishes for lunch, and the "leading role" is Beijing Roast Duck. Zhou Enlai introduced the roast duck to Kissinger, and personally put a piece of duck meat on the lotus leaf cake. Near the end of lunch, Zhou Enlai picked up Maotai liquor and proposed that everyone raise their glasses to wish the two sides a successful afternoon's talks. The toast was later called Zhou Enlai's "Maotai Diplomacy" by international public opinion.

The talks that afternoon and the next day made positive progress: the drafting of the joint communiqu é of Kissinger's visit, the decision of our government to issue an invitation to President Nixon of the United States to visit China... Nixon accepted the invitation with pleasure and visited China as scheduled in February 1972. Since then, China US relations have opened a new page.

Later, it was commented that this was the "roast duck diplomacy" after the "table tennis diplomacy" (in April 1971, the American table tennis team came to China for a visit and friendly competition, which also caused great repercussions in the world and was called Zhou Enlai's "table tennis diplomacy" by international public opinion), which made contributions to the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States.

However, the above table of roast duck contains the efforts of the Prime Minister. In the name of Zhou Enlai, Zhou Enlai personally reviewed and approved the menu of the banquet, and he specifically proposed to let guests taste the roast duck. But Kissinger's trip to Beijing was a secret talk. He could not go to the roast duck restaurant to eat. If he asked the restaurant to roast the duck and then send it back, the meat would be cold and tasteless. So he set up a small oven in the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse and invited the teacher from the roast duck restaurant. Kissinger is a real gourmet. After coming to China, he proposed to eat Chinese food, so he was very happy with this arrangement.

Premier Zhou Enlai said before his death that "cultural and economic exchanges are the two wings of China's diplomacy." Beijing Roast Duck has played an important role in cultural exchanges and foreign affairs. Premier Zhou Enlai, a diplomat, hosted 27 dinners for foreign guests in Quanjude.

Kissinger was probably the first American politician to taste the roast duck. "As long as you give me a Beijing roast duck, I am willing to sign any document". From this sentence, it is not difficult to see that Kissinger has a special liking for roast duck.

In February 1972, Premier Zhou Enlai hosted Quanjude Roast Duck to President Nixon of the United States. In April 1993, Nixon visited China again after he left office, and he went to Quanjude to taste the roast duck to relive and recall the glory and taste of that year. The American newspaper reported: "Climbing the Great Wall, eating roast duck and tasting Maotai are the most beautiful enjoyment."

Liu Peng/drawing provided

Originally published in the third edition of China Archives Journal, No. 3626, January 8, 2021

Advantages of Beijing Roast Duck Carved by Fire
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Beijing Roast Duck originates from Shandong cuisine, and later became famous in Beijing. Zibo Fire Carving Catering Management Co., Ltd. was established in Zibo, the birthplace of Shandong cuisine, and enjoys unique advantages in catering research and development. Technical Director Wei Kunfang was a cooking master who worked in Quanjude for more than 10 years, and has successively won the honors of Chinese Shandong cuisine master, member of Shandong Famous Chef Committee, and special dish developer of China Cuisine Association, Now he is responsible for the research, development and improvement of fire carved Beijing Roast Duck. The company integrates traditional technology and modern concepts, and has built a brand suitable for the takeaway industry - fire carved Beijing Roast Duck.

Zibo Huoke Catering Management Co., Ltd., founded on January 23, 2016, is a national catering brand chain enterprise integrating catering chain alliance, self owned supply chain production and research, brand incubation, and catering service management. The company is now the main brand of Beijing Roast Duck, which is also the founder of Beijing Roast Duck Outward. It inherits 600 years of roast duck skills and combines new business models to create a new category of racetrack focusing on Beijing Roast Duck, a national dish. The company is determined to become a responsible catering project incubation platform in China.

Duck embryo is used for pollution-free mountain breeding in cooperatives, food feeding, ISO22000 quality system certification, and the whole process supervision of factory standardized order breeding. Each duck has an ID card, which can trace its origin in the whole process. The raw materials are not salted or added, fresh, reassuring and delicious. The sauce is naturally fermented for 180 days, with unique taste and its own secret recipe. Self built food processing plant, with its own upstream core seasoning and supporting product supply chain, has more stable products and strong R&D capability.

The company now has 7 direct stores, more than 200 specialty catering franchise stores, and the annual turnover of poor stores is more than 1 million. Determined to develop into the leading brand of Beijing Roast Duck take out category.

Zibo Huoke Catering Management Co., Ltd

  Six business advantages of fire engraving


1、 Advantages of supply chain system:

It has its own production lines for duck embryo, sauce and other core materials. With the same quality, the franchisees have stable supply, stable quality and more guaranteed profits!

2、 Advantages of business experience:

The operation team has 20 years of experience in catering operation. It has continuously opened direct stores and optimized the business direction in different regions with direct marketing as the driving force. There are more than 200 stores in operation nationwide, and the longest store has been operated for more than 5 years. Up to now, 70% of the stores have an annual turnover of more than 1.5 million and 30% have an annual turnover of about 1 million.

3、 Advantages of business model:

The business model of taking 30-40 square meters of community stores as the main business, offline take out and online take out. It can be operated by 1-2 people. The cost of rent and labor is low. The single category operation ensures that there is no waste of food materials affecting the profits of the store. The core materials are distributed uniformly by the headquarters, saving time and labor. The net profits of other catering projects can be increased by 10%~20%.

  

4、 Category advantages:

The sauce is upgraded, with rich taste, wide audience and strong ability to obtain customers. The special grade duck embryo of Beijing Roast Duck is selected from 50 selected duck embryos. The fat rate is low, and the meat carrying rate is high. It is fragrant but not greasy, which improves the repurchase rate and frequency. More than ten kinds of stewed duck products can effectively increase the turnover of the store without increasing the artificial equipment.

5、 Advantages of online takeout platform:

Meituan and Elemai can have the same brand chain logo as KFC/McDonald's, increase the exposure of stores on the takeout platform, tilt the platform traffic, and enjoy the lowest local discount points. The platform will have corresponding subsidies for activities on the takeout platform.

6、 Fire Engraving Business School:

Through business school communication and the existing major brands of catering, strategic partners will be reached to update the latest business philosophy and methods in real time and provide guidance and training to franchisees. The most mature business methods will be combined with the latest marketing programs to enable franchisees to do no difficult business.


Service advantages


  Before opening the store

1. Field investigation: visit the business store, taste the fire carved Beijing Roast Duck, conduct detailed investment analysis, and provide a reasonable business plan;

2. Determination of business district: professionals compare the data of people flow, consumption ability, consumption habits, customer groups and other data with the data of existing business stores and obtain the estimated sales volume to assist in site selection;

3. Competitive product analysis: according to the local actual situation, analyze the competitive product information, set the main direction of the store, and improve the core competitiveness of the market;

4. Training and learning: the actual teaching of operating stores, the all-round training of various posts, let the league merchants practice with operating stores, and realize the independent opening of stores after the completion of training;

5. Decoration design: one shop, one design, design the plan, effect drawing and construction drawing according to the actual situation of the shop;

6. Decoration supervision: guide the decoration and construction of the store, and give an estimated decoration budget as a reference to ensure the integrity and unity of equipment and production lines, and avoid secondary decoration;

7. Formalities handling: assist and guide the alliance merchants to handle relevant business procedures;

8. Material procurement: assist in providing equipment ordering, installation, commissioning, etc. required by the store;

9. Personnel recruitment: assist and guide the alliance merchants to provide professional talent recruitment and salary management plans;

10. Publicity design: design of terminal publicity materials such as store wall image, light box, image window sticker, publicity poster, and DM sheet;


  Opening

1. Marketing plan formulation: comprehensively analyze the business type and consumption habits of the business district, and formulate corresponding business plans;

2. Opening activity planning: provide trial operation publicity plan and opening marketing planning plan according to the actual situation of the store;

3. Operation guidance: provide a comprehensive store operation manual, the regional supervisor will conduct a detailed analysis of the store operation, and guide the store operation according to the data analysis;

4. Assisting in opening: the opening operation of the store manager with more than 5 years' experience assists the league merchants in opening and provides corresponding guidance and adjustment to the actual operation of the store;

5. Standard distribution: provide a sound financial system and supply of materials, sauces, equipment, tableware, clothing, publicity materials, etc., and standardize the purchase, sales and storage processes of operating stores;

6. Standardized operation: 7 years of store operation experience, standardized QSC operation standards, and established brand core competitiveness in terms of quality, health, service, etc;

7. Construction of online takeout platform: Meituan and Elime brand chains, with specific corresponding brand influence and store exposure and drainage advantages, enjoy the lowest local discount points and the largest activity subsidies; Online stores, keywords, advertising booth display, ranking, food picture upload, price positioning, booth layout and other stores shall be established with unified assistance from the headquarters;

  After opening

1. Update of new products: update new products free of charge, improve product support, and constantly improve market competitiveness;

2. Year-round marketing: provide year-round store promotion and marketing programs, and provide various graphic poster design programs;

3. Mysterious people explore stores: enter stores as consumers, evaluate store operations from the perspective of consumers, improve business processes, and minimize customer loss;

4. Regional supervision and shop tour: irregularly supervise and shop tour, help league merchants find out business problems and provide solutions, improve the operation problems of business stores, and increase the turnover of business stores;

5. Huoke Business School: continuous training, so that alliance merchants can get access to the latest catering industry knowledge, so that the store operation can meet the market development;

6. Quality control system: strict quality control of high standards, and no product will be produced if the product requirements are not met, so that the fire engraving brand will be popular and form a regional reputation;

7. We media channel operation: the headquarters drives league merchants to use online sales of Tiktok, Kwai, Xiaohongshu and other We media platforms to operate store write off, making store operation easier;

Address: Yujing Building, Zhangdian District, Zibo City

e-mail address: 2126106320@qq.com

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